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Tree of life
Protecting Bahrain's Environment and Natural Habitat

Environment protection is a global concern for nations sustainability, therefore, the Kingdom of Bahrain has made great efforts to ensure environmental sustainability in many areas. The Constitution   of Bahrain and the National Action Charter  have given close attention to environment protection to maintain balance in the urban development requirements and the environmental sustainability. It is a main pillar of the Bahrain’s Economic Vision 2030 and its National Strategic Master Plan.

The Kingdom has also established The Supreme Council for Environment  (SCE) involved in the development of programs, policies, and strategies to achieve the environmental sustainability in various domains. Moreover, it has enacted a number of laws and regulations  related to sustainable development and has engaged in many multilateral conventions and compliance to reaffirm its commitment towards the global directions.

National Strategy for Environment

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The National Strategy for Environment

Recycle and Reuse in bahrain

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Plastic Bags are Banned in Bahrain

Green Bahrain

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Green Spaces in the Kingdom

Environment Protection Focus Areas

The Supreme Council for Environment  (SCE) is a government entity established in 2012. The council is in-charge of the development of Bahrain’s future strategy for the environment, sustainable development, and following up on the National Strategy for Environment  implementation with relevant ministries, agencies and institutions. The SCE’s mandate also includes protecting Bahrain’s natural habitat and human environment, ensuring the sustainability of its components, and preserving and developing its resources for future generations.

Bahrain has made great strides in the area of economic, social, and environmental development in the last decades. It has strived for sustainable and harmonious growth to achieve the Millennium and sustainable Development Goals in different arenas such as:


The Kingdom of Bahrain has taken serious steps towards energy conservation through a number of initiatives, such as the directions towards green energy, enforcing policies towards the reduction of consumption optimize the utilization of the country's natural resources. A national committee  has been formed in Bahrain with the aim to move towards alternative environmentally-friendly renewable energy and promote it among government entities, businesses, residents, and citizens.

Examples of public and private entities in relation to the national energy direction:


Water is the most precious natural resource that is needed by every living thing on earth. It is a global concern and has been an fundamental component of the global development agenda since the declaration of the UN Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals. The Kingdom of Bahrain has devoted special attention to water as a natural resource and has succeeded to achieve the SDG goal 6 related to clean water and sanitation by 100%. The Information & eGovernment Authority  (iGA) issued the Water Report which explain about Bahrain’s effort in archiving all of the targets of the Sixth Goal: Clean Water and Sanitation.

Air Quality

As one of the critical elements in environment protection, Bahrain has addressed this through the continuous monitoring of air quality through various monitoring stations placed in different locations in the kingdom. This coupled with other environmental projects that contribute to the reduction of environmental pollution are the foundation of the country’s air quality initiatives. On the other hand, some major industrial companies in Bahrain such as Gulf Petrochemical Industrial Company  (GPIC) has initiated major environmental projects as part of their social responsibility towards the environment. 


In order to preserve the marine and wildlife in Bahrain, the country has devoted six areas as natural reserves. This included five Marine Protected Areas, which are: Hawar Islands, Gulf of Tubli, Dohat Arad, Mashtan Island, and Herr Bulthamah, and a Wildlife Sanctuary: Al Areen Wildlife Park . The private sector have contributions in supporting biodiversity in the kingdom. A bird sanctuary  was created to protect Bahrain’s bird life.

Land Use and Desertification

The Kingdom, through the Ministry of Works, Municipalities Affairs and Urban Planning  and in cooperation with other public authorities, is working on preparing detailed strategic maps for the Kingdom of Bahrain in 2030, which will be based on several development requirements that will protect the environment and preserve its resources.

The Information and eGovernment Authority  (iGA) has launched the “Soil Mapping Project ” in an effort towards the Implementation of Targets & Indicators of the 6th Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Bahrain. The project aims at gathering, analyzing and distributing geographical data related to Bahrain’s soil with an aim to increase Bahrain’s green area and reduce the optimize the land usage.

Coastal Areas

Among the many efforts to protect the coastal areas, the country has emphasized that environmental-impact surveys should be done when new developmental projects are being considered in the country. These surveys will study the effects of new projects on the coastal areas, prior to the issuing of project permits. The country has also adopted the concept of integrated management of the coastal and marine environment in urban planning for Bahrain in 2030.

Marine Life Protection

The marine environment represents about 91% of the total land and water area of the Kingdom of Bahrain. It contains some of the most important strategic resources for the Kingdom and many Bahraini citizens depend on fishing and related professions. Moreover, desalinated sea water is an important source of drinking water in Bahrain in the present and the future and an essential pillar of its water security. Therefore, Bahrain pays close attention to protect and sustain the marine environment and conserve its natural resources in line to the country’s effort towards SDG goal 14 related to the “Life Below Water”. The government of Bahrain has enforced several laws and policies to protect marine resources through the management and regulation of fishing machinery, equipment, methods, conditions, procedures, and licensing. In addition, the government has regulated the sale of marine wealth and organized procedures for customs and quarantine for fishing vessels carrying imported products of marine wealth.

To support urban and economic development of Bahrain without damaging the environment, Bahrain has formed the Land Search Governance Committee  to monitor the marine sand extraction utilizing latest technologies. Bahrain is taking a bold stand against marine litter and for the health of our oceans by joining some 40 other nations  in becoming a member of the Clean-Seas Campaign, pledging to keep our oceans healthy and litter-free.

Chemical substances

Many resolutions have been announced to address and control the chemical substances used in the country, such as: controlling substances that deplete the ozone layer, restriction on equipment and buildings containing asbestos, control on the import and use of banned and severely restricted chemicals, management of dangerous chemical materials, and the adoption of the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM)  .


As part of the country’s environment protection plan to control waste, the kingdom has adopted a national contingency plan for combating oil spills, the management of hazardous waste and healthcare waste, as well as adopting projects that address the need to recycle electronics (Recycling IT). The Bahrain association for parents and friends of the disabled have come up with a creative project to help buy Wheelchairs for disabled in Bahrain by collecting plastic water bottles throughout the year. The plastic bottles are then sold to recycling factories and the proceedings are used to buy customized wheelchairs for the benefit of disabled individuals.

Banning of Plastic Bags

Bahrain has taken a decision to phase out the use of plastic products in the local market in order to reduce the production of plastic waste in the Kingdom by controlling its consumption. In addition to improving the level of plastic products used in areas where the use of plastic products cannot be prevented in order to be environmentally friendly.

In July 2019, the government of Bahrain issued an order banning the non-biodegradable plastic bags . Bahraini factories are required to manufacture only biodegradable plastic bags. The Council is considering how to deal with other plastics waste to reduce them, as well as taking steps to implement a plan and mechanism to deal with plastic bottles.

Switching to Biodegradable Garbage Bags

In accordance with the Resolution No 11 of 2019   (Arabic only) regarding the technical regulations for plastic products, which bans all single use plastics bags across the Kingdom; The Municipalities collaborated with the Ministry of Works, Municipal Affairs and Urban Planning   to install automated garbage bag vending machines in selected locations to provide garbage bags for the kingdom’s residents.

The vending machine   will store and provide new eco-friendly and biodegradable garbage bags to the residents, who need them. These vending machines are designed to be user friendly, requiring only the users’ ID card number and the Electricity &Water Authority (EWA)   account number to check the eligibility of the user who is receiving the bag to manage production and usage. The vending machine is available 24 hours a day 7 days a week, eliminating the hassle of visiting the local municipality office to collect the bags.


The biodegradable garbage bags vending machine

Recycling and Reuse of Waste

Waste management is not the responsibility of the government only, but the whole community. Many initiatives have been conducted by organizations from the private sector and Non Government Organizations (NGO’s) in recycling and reusing the waste. These organizations collect waste and extract all re-usable materials such as metals , plastic, paper   and other waste materials. Materials are treated, proceed and then sold to be reused as manufacturing components in the kingdom’s industrial areas factories. The Bahrain association for parents and friends of the disabled  have come up with a creative project to help buy Wheelchairs for disabled in Bahrain by collecting plastic water bottles throughout the year. The plastic bottles are then sold to recycling factories and the proceedings are used to buy customized wheelchairs for the benefit of disabled individuals.

The waste control department at the Supreme Council for the Environment  studies applications for waste disposal to precisely determine the best way to get rid of the waste. Industrial wastes and hazardous waste are disposed of in an environmentally safe manner according to Local legislation and international agreements, and in line with Bahrain's commitment to environmental conservation. The Supreme Council for the Environment also issues special export licenses for exporting waste  to other countries for processing or recycling.

Recycle IT Project

Every day, there is a new technology and a new device, but what to do with the old devices?. Researches found that the waste resulted from IT equipment caused hazardous chemicals and will harm the environment and our lives! In Bahrain, there are many IT Recycling initiatives where old devices are collected, repaired or refurbished and reused. The project has raised Bahrain's rating in the eWaste Recycling Technology from level one to level three under the Centre for Environment Development for the Arab Region and Europe (CEDARE)  .

National Strategy for Environment

Bahrain has addressed all aspects of environmental issues such as climate change, water, wildlife, air pollution, waste management, renewable energy, cleat technologies, green IT and many other initiatives and projects. The Kingdom has established the Supreme Council for Environment  (SCE) to set the Environment National Strategy  and directions, set the related policies and overlook environmental matters in Bahrain.

The SCE also responds to environment incidents and develop contingency plans for environment protection. Any environmental incident can be reported to SCE by calling on 80001112 or submitting a case online through The National Suggestion & Complaint System  (Tawasul).

The draft of National Strategy to Protect the Environment was co-prepared by the Supreme Council for the Environment and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), in collaboration with the relevant sides related to the Environment, including research centers, universities civil society institutions and a host of international experts. The National Strategy to Protect the Environment was approved by the Cabinet of the Kingdom of Bahrain on October 8, 2006. Then, a number of programs and projects were devised to implement the strategy. In addition, the information & eGovernemnt Authority  is committed to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to protecting the environment. The Authority issued the Water Report which explain about Bahrain’s effort in archiving all of the targets of the Sixth Goal: Clean Water and Sanitation.

Many projects and initiatives have been implemented in the Kingdom of Bahrain to support the field of environmental protection and conservation, for more information, visit the links below:


Bahrain provides online eServices that support its commitment to protect the environment. Users can apply online to get chemicals import license and get license for a service facility thorough "Sijilat" system. The users can also apply online through the Bahrain Horizon - Customs Single Window For Trade "OFOQ system ", and the Building Permits portal "Benayat " to get Environment related permits.

Pollution, Air Quality and Green Spaces

Air Quality

Air is as important as water in the preserving the environment and its natural resources. The Supreme Council for the Environment allocates special importance to preserving air and getting rid of its pollutants  and the operations that increase the rate air-harming gases.

Soil Mapping Project

The Information and eGovernment Authority  (iGA) has launched a unique project “Soil Mapping” in an effort towards the Implementation of Targets & Indicators of the 6th Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Bahrain.

The project gathered analyzed and distributed geographical data related to Bahrain’s soil with an aim to generate soil maps focusing on agricultural properties of the soil, using multispectral satellite imagery, remote sensing and field survey data. The project will lead to increase Bahrain’s green area and to optimize the land usage.

Soil Mapping

View a brief of the project results


Cultivation of Mangroves

Mangroves grow naturally in Tubli Bay, east of Bahrain. Tubli Bay is the most suitable site for the growth of Avicennia in the Kingdom of Bahrain compared to the rest of the coast because of its semi-closed formation, slow water currents and the availability of fresh water provided by irrigation channels. The reduced salinity is favored by the Avicennia trees.

The Supreme Council for the Environment has implemented an expansion project for the cultivation of Avicennia trees, with funding from the National Initiative for Agricultural Development (NIAD)   to restore the Environment of Avicennia trees in Tubli Bay and on various coasts of the Kingdom of Bahrain. 

Establishing Agricultural Greenhouses

The National Initiative for Agricultural Development (NIAD) has established several high-quality greenhouses with the latest technologies in cooperation with a number of government institutions, civil society organizations and educational institutions to spread agricultural skills across various levels.

Electronic Application (Public gardens)

The University of Bahrain , with the support of National Initiative for Agricultural Development (NIAD ), has launched an application to list all public gardens in Bahrain and encourage visitors to give their feedback and ideas for review so that the gardens can be developed according to people's needs. The application aims to encourage people to visit and enjoy the gardens in their residential area and gives the relevant municipalities access to review the number of visitors for each garden and follow up on garden maintenance.

Bahrain International Garden Show

Bahrain International Garden Show  is an annual garden and agriculture show organized in Bahrain under the patronage of His Majesty the King of Bahrain to address recent issues and technologies in the agriculture and Greenland arena. It is firmly established as a leading gardening show in the region attracts key players in the filed from all over the region.

Princess Sabeeka Park

Occupying a total area of 43,000 m2, the state-of-the-art environmental extravaganza was inaugurated in February 2010 by Her Royal Highness Princess Sabeeka bint Ibrahim Al Khalifa, wife of His Majesty King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa and Chairwoman of the Supreme Council for Women  in Bahrain. The Park encompasses a wide variety of rare plant species and exhibits and invites students of schools and universities from all over the Kingdom to benefit educationally from its resources. Lush with greenery, it is also a preferred choice for families, featuring entertainment facilities including a children’s play area, in addition to housing the Dar Al-Nakheel, a model scientific laboratory for renewable energy.

Green ICT

The Supreme Council for the Environment's adoption of green information and communication technology (ICT) is among its pioneering projects in the fields of Environment and informatics. The SCE  started implementing the project since 2009, through the use of the latest modern technology in the field of green ICT , The aim is to reach the best practices in order to rationalize electric energy consumption and reduce the carbon footprint in all the SCE's sectors. Through the project, the Supreme Council for the Environment seeks to make optimum use and application of green technologies in environmental work. It also stems from its visions in this regard. They include excellence, professionalism, and leadership in the application of green technologies in various areas of environmental action at the local and regional levels, in order to become a model to be emulated by institutions, whether inside or outside the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Page Last Updated: 22 Apr, 2021